RIN Numbers: How they’re calculated, what they mean and why they’re important

High-quality sequencing data is an important part of ensuring that your data is reliable and replicable, and obtaining high-quality sequencing data means using high-quality starting material. For RNA-seq data, this means using RNA that has a high RIN (RNA Integrity Number), a 10-point scale from 1 – 10 that provides a standardized number to researchers indicating the quality of their RNA, removing individual bias and interpretation from the process.

The RIN is a significant improvement over the way that RNA integrity was previously calculated: the 28S and 18S ratio. Because 28S is approximately 5 kb and 18S is approximately 2 kb, the ideal 28S:18S ratio is 2.7:1–but the benchmark is considered about 2:1. However, this measurement relies on the assumption that the quality of rRNA (a very stable molecule) is linearly reflective of mRNA quality, which is actually much less stable and experience higher turnover [1].

Figure1

Figure 1: RNA traces of RNA samples with different RIN values. Note the difference between high and low quality samples.

Fortunately, Agilent Technologies has developed a better method: the RIN value. Agilent has developed a sophisticated algorithm that calculates the RIN value, a measurement that is a considerable improvement over the 28S:18S ratio. RIN is an improvement in that it takes into account the entirety of the RNA sample, not just the rRNA measurements, as you can see in Figure 1 [2]

The importance of RNA integrity in determining the quality of gene expression was examined by Chen et al. [3] in 2014 by comparing RNA samples of 4 different RIN numbers (from 4.5 – 9.4) and 3 different library preparation methods (poly-A selected, rRNA-depleted, and total RNA) for a total of 12 samples. They then calculated the correlation coefficient of gene expression between the highest quality RNA and the more degraded samples between library preparation methods.

Figure2

Figure 2: Only poly-A selected RNA library preparations experience a decrease in data quality with a decrease in RIN value.

Fascinatingly, the only library preparation method that showed a significant decrease in the correlation between high quality and low quality RNA was the poly-A selected library preparation method. The other two library preparation methods still had correlation coefficients of greater than 0.95 even at low RINs (see Figure 2 [3])!

Chen et al. theorize that the reason behind this is that degraded samples that are poly-A selected will result in an increasingly 3′ biased library preparation, and that therefore you will lose valuable reads from your data. Because the other methods involve either no treatment or rRNA removal (as opposed to selection), there will be considerably less bias in the overall sample.

Even though it seems as though only the poly-A selected library preparation method suffers from having a low RIN, providers still prefer to work with relatively high quality RNA samples for all library preparation methods. However, if you do have important samples that are of lower quality RIN, it may be worth still discussing your options with a provider directly–and we at Genohub are more than happy to help facilitate your discussions! Please contact us here if you have any further questions about sequencing of samples with poor RIN.

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